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Printing Press
Before the development of printing, books had to be copied by hand, often by monks, as one read out loud for others to copy, and later by paid copyists in universities. Gutenberg, a German goldsmith from Mainx, about 1440, first used printing using separa...

PC Computer
IBM launched its first desktop computer in 1981 and used the already existing term PC (personal computer) as a brand name. The machine was built around Intel's 8088 processor and Microsoft were asked to the develop the new operating system MS-DOS. In 1983...

Ball Bearing
Philip Vaughan
The earliest known example of as working ball bearing dates from the end of the 18th century. It had an outside diameter of 850mm and provided with 55mm cast iron balls in a similar arrangement to a modern ball race. It was installed in a windmill at Spro...

Bessemer Converter
Sir Henry Bessemer
Sir Henry Bessemer became interested in finding ways of making barrels for canon during the Crimean War. The existing cast iron was impure, brittle and at times dangerous to use. In 1856 he described his Bessemer Converter. This is a large container which...

Kawaski Heavy Industries
Kawaski Heavy Industries manufactured this industrial robot in 1968. Industrial robots transformed labour-intensive tasks and also both the general manufacturing environment and the types and number of jobs available for people. Further development of suc...

The Difference Engine
Charles Babbage
In 1812 Charles Babbage designed and built a machine that used an array of gears to make calculations called the Difference Engine. Its development owed much to previous work by John Napier (inventor of the logarithm), Blaise Pascal in 1642, Sir Samuel Mo...

Steam Governor
James Watt
The flyball steam engine governor was an early example of using negative feedback to control a machine. It was invented in 1788 by James Watt to regulate the speed of steam engines. As the speed of rotation increases, the flyballs spin outwards causing a ...

Morris Minor
Alex Issigonis
The Morris Minor was launched during Britain's first post-war Motor Show in 1948 although a prototype existed in 1943 (known as the Mosquito). It was designed by a young Alex Issigonis and featured the then novel unitary chassis / body construction but wa...

2CV (Deux Chevaux)


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